Change Management and Resistance to Change

Blog 4: Change Management and Resistance to Change


Being change resistant is human nature, however, management plays a significant role in changing the attitude and behaviour of people making them realise the importance of change and how it helps in the future (Hultman, 2003).

Change Management

Picture Courtesy: Google Images


Remodeling and development of management within an organization is referred to as change management. Change management is usually done by using new resource methods and ways in which the business in ran to reshape it (Hultman, 2003).

Challenges Linked with Change Management Programs

Though the realities of change management are understood by the managers, yet sometimes they fail to realise what it takes to bring change. Two assumptions considered by the managers when thinking about change are financial and change in employee behaviour. Financial change refers to quality circles, corporate culture and value and mission statement. However, change in employee behaviour refers to the change that occurs (Aguirre et al., 2013)

Need for Change Management

As the famous quote says “The sun is new everyday”. Change has been happening since the existence of the world. At present, the societies are changing rapidly and thus neither a company nor an individual can survive without adapting to change (Sagie et al., 2000).

Factors of change

Political factors

Introduction of new tariffs and charges by the government result in bringing change in the organisation regarding the ratio of employees who work fulltime by the management.  Political factors are regarded as one of the most influential aspect of our society (Kuang et al., 2001)

Socio cultural factor

The social cultural aspects may affect the target market; hence, it is important for the organization to ensure that the strategy changes are in line with the preferences of customers and cultural sensitivities (Kuang et al., 2001).

Economic factors

Change in economic factors, such as, when government imposes cap on the production output or the tax rate increases, lead to the company changing their strategies. In these cases, the company brings change in their management to tackle market changes (Kuang, et al., 2001)


Technological factors are another reason for an organisation to incorporate change in management or their structure. Lack of technological knowledge and expertise makes the management to change strategies. Revolution of the IT industry in the last few years have forced the companies to make changes in their management to cope up with the rapidly changing technology (Kuang, et al., 2001)

Leaders and Managers view of Change

The change in formal structure of an organisation and management is generally proposed or recommended by the management at top level of hierarchy. Leaders consider change as growth opportunity for both; the organisation and themselves. Change is seen positively by the leaders and thus, they try to make employees understand its importance in being successful. For leaders, change is a challenge that they try to deal with in an utmost professional way (Caldwell, 2003).

A more pessimistic view about change explains that it is considered favourable for people by the top leaders and management because it gives them a chance to grow and succeed in their career goals (Caldwell, 2003).

Example Implementation of Change – Target

One of Unites states’ biggest discounted retail store, Target, was never developed with the intention of being a discounted store. It was in 1950 when the management thought about catering to the masses. As soon as the management identifies the urgency of this upgrade, change was implemented and the store was changed to low cost retail shop. In addition to this, they also sustain the change (Briciu, 2013)

Resistance to Change

The company, Kodak, established itself in 1888 with film based photography as their core business. The business faced downtrend when in 2010 its stock prices dropped to 78 cents. Its major strategy to glue people with film making was to give away cameras. Kodak’s market share was affected badly when the first instant photography camera was made in 1948. Though, the company tried to cope up with it but failed. Steve Sasson, an engineer in Kodak invented digital camera, for the first time in 1975. The management of the company thought that. Though the idea was cute, it shouldn’t be told to anyone (New York Times, 2008). Therefore, the company failed due to their inability to predict the revolution that digital cameras would bring (N T Moulding, 2016).

Kotter’s 8 Steps Model

Source: Suman (2014)

An effective model for change was introduced by Kotter, to help the leaders in bring change successfully in the organisation without any uncertainty. Designed specifically to help leaders in bring change, the model outlines eight steps that should be followed by the leaders of the organisation to successfully implement change (Mento et al., 2002).

Limitations of Kotter’s Change Model

Though his model has been quite successful, it does have some limitations as well. Firstly, unfair pressure, which means that the model pressurizes the leaders unfairly and does not focus on the employee’s performance. Secondly, for the managers to be fully knowledgeable about implications of change is impossible. Lastly, the model lacks in organising individuals at different levels (Mento et al., 2002).

Lewin Change Model


Picture Courtesy: Google Images


In contrast to Kotter, Lewin’s change model has been very effective. The model outlines three steps to implement change and recommends ways to sustain it. Lewin argues, that change can only happen to people when they are flexible enough to accept change (Mike, 2014). He further states that generally people fear change and thus it is very important for the leader to make them understand why change is needed and how will it benefit them personally and the organization. Once the first step to communicate the need to change is completed, the second step is transforming the change. Lastly, change is implemented. It is significant for the organizations, that once the change is implemented, measures are taken to sustain it before it obsoletes (Schein, 2000).

Limitations of Lewin Change Model

Sometimes, change looks attractive and achievable on paper, but as basic human feelings are not considered in the process of change, this can result in negative consequences. All the employees should participate fully to implement change effectively and this is not possible. Another drawback is that agreement between all group members is not possible (Schein, 2000).


Word Count: 1042



Aguirre, D., von, R. & Alpern, M., 2013. Culture’s role in enabling organizational change.

Bass, B., 1988. The Inspirational Processes of Leadership. Journal of Management Development, 7(5), pp. 21-31.

Briciu, S., 2013. PROS AND CONS FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TARGET COSTING METHOD IN ROMANIAN ECONOMIC ENTITIES. Accounting and Management Information Systems, 12(3), pp. 455-470.

Caldwell, R., 2003. Change leaders and change managers: different or complementary? Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 24(5), pp. 285-293.

Hultman, K., 2003. Managing resistance to change. Encyclopedia of Information Systems, Volume 3, pp. 693-705.

Kuang, J., Lee, J. & Fui, F., 2001. Critical factors for successful implementation of enterprise systems. Business Process Management Journal, 7(3), pp. 285-296.

Mento, A., Jones, R. & Dirndorfer, W., 2002. A change management process: Grounded in both theory and practice. Journal of Change Management, Volume 3, pp. 45-59.

N T Moulding, C. A. S. D. P. W., 2016. A framework for effective management of change in clinical practice: dissemination and implementation of clinical practice guidelines. Quality in Health Care, Volume 8, pp. 177-183.

Sagie, A., Elizur, D. & Greenbaum, C., 2000. Job experience, persuasion strategy and resistance to change: An experimental study. Journal of Occupational Behavior, Volume 6, pp. 157-162.

Schein, E. H., 2000. Kurt Lewin’s change theory in the field and in the classroom: Notes toward a model of managed learning. Systems practice, 9(1), pp. 27-47.

11 thoughts on “Change Management and Resistance to Change

  1. culcivanhkc says:

    Concise written blog with the explanation of the need of change management we need in the current industry we are facing now. Quite hectic if you ask me to be honest, with the major challenges you provide, I roughly know how to develop changes to myself as a leader in the future. Great effort in displaying the factors of change and good use of examples as well on company that developed changes and Kodak’s resistance to changes which shows their downfall in the market today. Good effort overall.


  2. Farhan Tariq says:

    Overall a well written blog. Individuals don’t want to adapt a change because they are not willing to leave their comfort zone as a result they fail miserably. Likewise, same goes with the organizations where the companies fail to adapt a major change, then they confront disastrous consequences. Kodak and Nokia are one of the best examples available.


  3. cuintinick says:

    Your sharing on the limitation of Kotter’s Change model is informative. It is to my opinion that there is no best models or approaches in dealing with situations or problems. Hence leaders need to rely on their abilities and make the best of what resources they have.


  4. Taimoor Khaan says:

    The concepts of change management are well defined. Examples used are also relevant. The change model also explains the concept effectively


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